AI女王贾斯汀.卡塞尔:人工智能将重构多个领域,带来各种各样的可能性

摘要:AI女皇贾斯汀.卡塞尔:人工智能将重构多个领域,带来各种各样的可能性,AI已经可以在教育、无人驾驶、工作沟通方面取得很不错的成就,在未来,个性化将成为人工智能与人类互动的关键因素。

12月28日,“亚太区域互联网创新创业高峰论坛”在海口隆重举办。本次峰会是由海南省工业和信息化厅、海口市人民政府和澄迈县人民政府主办,龙华区人民政府、复兴城互联网创新创业园和品途集团承办,是2017海南“互联网+”创新创业节系列活动之一。


会上,世界经济论坛计算机全球未来理事会主席贾斯汀·卡塞尔(Justine Cassell)表示,中国一直是一个创新的国家,在近几年科技发展尤为迅猛,在计算能力不断强大的现在,第四次工业革命或许能成为属于中国的革命。AI已经可以在教育、无人驾驶、工作沟通方面取得很不错的成就,在未来,个性化将成为人工智能与人类互动的关键因素。

以下为主题演讲实录,由品途商业评论(ID:pintu360)精编整理,有删减:

非常高兴来到这里参加本次论坛,我想谈互联网+和人工智能的机遇和挑战。

我们知道第一次工业革命的驱动力是什么,结果又是什么,驱动力包括人口的增长、教育的进步、城市的发展,这些驱动力让我们看到了技术的突飞猛进,包括农业机械,铁以及火药、纸、印刷术等等,这样的技术通过复杂的渠道在全国范围内发展起来。第一次工业革命在宋朝,是960年开始的。它创造了中国的机遇,同时也创造了中国各个省份之间的互动和交流,这是我们讨论的背景。

在技术方面,如果说中国是一个新兴的国家,这是一个错误的说法,实际上中国在宋代以来就是科技的引领者。但是最近以来,我们才开始中国的复兴,有一段时间中国陷入了沉寂,我非常感谢的是,2008年我第一次来中国之后,过去9年中国发生了令人惊讶的变化,不光是技术方面,就未来的前景看也是如此。

现在我并不认为中国在科技方面是沉寂的,因为像阿里巴巴、腾讯、百度等众多的公司都是革新者,所以我们要相信中国的科技可以在人工智能支持下迅猛的发展。另外,中国可以进一步发展传统行业,激发中小企业的活力,同时还能够拥抱一个美好的未来,创造一个创新的未来。

AI真正的创新是人机协作

现在很多人问我的问题是我们如何能够保持人情味,他们对此有些担忧。比如,北京有几个共享单车企业,是相互竞争的关系,我们看到道德上的思考,因为有些人把自行车到处乱丢。我们把创新放在传统之前,就是道德上的混乱,所以我们看到中国始终是强调人际沟通的社会,在创新的过程中要保持这样的传统。

现在我们谈的第四次工业革命,是不是也是属于中国的革命呢?中国是不是可以把它的传统产业以及互联网与传统产业连接的能力进一步发展?

 

淘宝实际上欢迎小型的店主,它依靠这些店主不断的繁荣、发展,所以通过互联网+的方式,我们看到它促进了传统行业的发展。如果仅仅是把传统的产业放在淘宝上是不足够的,我们必须能够开发新的方法去创新。

因为新材料和其他领域的创新,我们可以有更强的计算能力。我们已经不需要用硅生产晶片,我们有计算的能力和技巧,使我们计算的能力更上一层楼。人工智能可以帮助我们产生很多的数据,这些数据是很重要的,如果不处理这些数据,就像撒在地上的面包屑。人工智能可以帮助我们处理这些数据,让它们不会变成面包屑。现在我们有很多的创新,比如在统计学方面我们有很多无监督的学习,也可以处理小概率事件的数据,人工智能可以把不同的事件集中,然后去处理新的问题,这些都是创新带来的可能性。 

人工智能不仅仅是关于机器学习的,我们还可以人机协作,真正的人工智能的创新是让我们更好的理解机器如何能够和人更好的合作,而不是说机器取代人,现在我们有新的生产方式和工作方式。


AI在各个领域的应用

创新的来源在哪里是一个很好的问题。我喜欢问观众问题,比如说在孩子看来,创新是什么呢?意味着孩子的好奇心就是一种能力,有时候我们忘记了好奇心的重要性、探索的心理还有犯错误的过程。

我们怎么样有更好创意?来自不同的观点,思维的碰撞可能让我们有更好的创意。在卡耐基梅隆大学,我们的团队有来自各个国家不同的成员,团队有不同的背景,他们所有的想法聚集在一起,思维产生碰撞,可以让我们有更好的创意。

我们在美国做了一个实验,一群同样无法正常使用手臂的残疾人,他们有老有少,有着不同的种族背景,他们聚集在一起设计了3D打印的假肢,并在网上销售。我们有新的生产模式和新的分销模式。

人也有了新模式,人就好比网络中传感器的节点,每个人有一个手机,你可以用手机获得也可以传递信息,手机上面有定位系统,还有一些APP,这些技术都可以用在无人驾驶上面。例如通过定位到达车的地点,也需要提供一些与无人驾驶车辆通信的道路基础设施,使汽车能够知道彼此的位置。当然我们也会遇到一些障碍,我们把带手机的人作为一个节点,你的地点被泄露了,这就涉及到隐私问题。

教育方面,新的教育模式是基于人工智能,可以根据个体学生的需求进行调整,现在学生玩手机可以看微信,也可以利用手机做教育。

我们可以用人工智能去发现优秀的学生和弱的学生的特点,使最慢的学生不再落后,最快的学生不再无聊。这对于教育是非常重大的转变,个性化教育可以拯救儿童,不仅仅是认知技能,还可以教授社交情绪技能。

工作和沟通方面也有新的模式。很多企业在很多国家有运营团队,比如微软。他们必须知道如何与其他来自不同背景的同事合作,可以通过人工智能去培训他们。对于一些癌症病人也可以得到帮助,他们没有见过的人也可以通过网络援助,像去年海南有台风,台风的受害者也可以通过网络获得世界各地的支持,这些都是你没有见过的人,人工智能让这些变成可能。

更高级的AI:个性化

现在我们有新的变化模式,我们可以给建筑物做个性化的设计,这是非常有趣的。35%的电力是一些商业楼宇消耗的,不幸的是,中国电力的10%被浪费掉,是因为我们对这些楼宇获取的数据是过时的,我们现在有新的数据进行收集,让这些楼宇的业务管理员可以做能源使用的管理和调整。

更加让我们兴奋的是,这些结果可以发给办公室的员工,他们可以理解需求,比如说哪一种颜色的灯光,什么样的能源组成对他们来说是最有用的,又比如他们的工作环境要怎样的桌子能帮助他们提高工作效率。非常重要的个性化设计是帮助人们做行为的改变,这样我们可以通过可视化的技巧,让他们了解怎样的工作才是最有效率的。

比如说你可以思考自己的工作习惯,你可以走路上班、坐电梯去办公室,或者骑单车上班,我们会有很多的建议。很多人说我要有个性化的东西,比如说针对癌症病人的个性化的治疗方案,个性化的市场营销、个性化的教育……

所有的东西都可以广泛的个性化定制,比如说每一天人工智能助手都会说我能够帮助你吗,这是一个非常简单的东西,重复下来就会让人讨厌,因此我们还会有更高级的定制化。


我跟大家分享两个案例,第一个是使用人工智能来了解你的情感,来判断你的健康状况是怎样的,你如何获得最好的帮助,通过这种新的技术来取得这样的效果。第二个案例是建立一种关系,在系统和用户之间建立关系,所以他不光是把你的产品进行定制,同时还会做相应的调整。

还有一个是呼叫中心,实际上这是大家认识品牌最初的印象,呼叫中心接到了呼叫,30秒内必须作出回应。这是我和学生2017年带去的机器人系统,这个系统会自动计算,它会研究你的微笑,你眼睛的动向,另外会观察你使用的语言,会调侃你,这是会进化的机器人。

它有一个反馈推荐系统来选择机器应该使用的沟通技巧,它是不是应该表扬你,比如说你真是让我出乎意料、像你这样的人怎么来到这个论坛呢?这个是人跟机器人互动的过程,它会获取一些信息,会向你寻求一些建议。

我就讲这么多,希望能够给大家思考和进一步的讨论,谢谢各位。 

附AI女皇贾斯汀.卡塞尔英文演讲:

It's my great pleasure to participate in this forum. I would like to talk about the opportunities and challenges of Internet+ and artificial intelligence.

The driving forces of the first industrial revolution included population growth, education progress and urban development. These driving forces showed us that the technology was making great strides, including agricultural machinery, iron and printing, etc. Such technologies have been developed nationwide through complex channels. It created opportunities for China and at the same time created the interaction and exchange among the various provinces in China. This is the background for our discussion.

In terms of technology, China is in no way a newly emerging country. In fact, China has been the leader of science and technology since Song Dynasty. However, we have only recently started the rejuvenation of China. I am very grateful that after my first visit to China in 2008, there have been surprising changes in China over the past nine years, not only in terms of technology, but also for future prospects.

Now I do not think China is left behind on science and technology. Because many companies like Alibaba, Tencent and Baidu are innovators, we must believe that China's technology can grow rapidly with the support of artificial intelligence. In addition, China can further develop its traditional industries and stimulate the vitality of SMEs, while at the same time embracing a bright and innovative future.

AI's innovation is in human-computer collaboration

Now many people ask me how we can maintain the human touch. For example, there are several sharing bike companies exhibiting competitive relationships, where we can see the moral thinking when some people throwing bicycles everywhere. Before we put innovation in tradition, it comes moral chaos. Therefore, we see that China has always been a society that emphasizes interpersonal communication. We should maintain such a tradition in the process of innovation.

Now we talk about the fourth industrial revolution, is it also a Chinese revolution? Is it possible for China to further develop its traditional industries and the ability to connect the Internet with traditional industries?

Taobao actually welcomes small shop owners. It relies on the constant prosperity and development of these shop owners. Therefore, through the Internet+, we see that it has promoted the development of traditional industries. If it is not enough to put traditional industries only on Taobao, we must be able to develop new ways to innovate.

Because of the new materials and other areas of innovation, we can have more computing power. We do not need silicon for wafer production, we have the computing power and skills to take our computing power to the next level.

Artificial Intelligence can help us generate a lot of data, which is important if you do not process the data like bread crumbs sprinkled on the ground. Artificial Intelligence helps us to manipulate these data so that they do not become breadcrumbs. Now we have a lot of innovations. For example, in statistics, we have a lot of unsupervised learning. We can also process data of small probability events. Artificial Intelligence can focus on different events and deal with new problems. These are innovation zones where possibility occurs.

Artificial intelligence is not just about machine learning. We also have human-machine collaboration. The true innovation of artificial intelligence is a better understanding of how machines can work together with human beings. Instead of saying that machines will replace people, we now have new ways of production and new ways of working.

AI in various fields of application

Where is the source of innovation? I would like to ask the audience, for example, in the eyes of children, what is innovation? It seems that children's curiosity is a natural capability. However, sometimes we forget the importance of curiosity, as well as the exploration of psychological and error-making process.

From different perspectives, the collision of thinking may allow us to have a better idea. At Carnegie Mellon, our teams have diverse members from all over the country. When all thoughts come together, the collision of minds gives us a better idea.

We did an experiment in the United States with a group of handicapped people who were also unable to use their arms properly. They were old and had a different ethnic background. They gathered to design and sell 3D prosthetic limbs online. Now we have new production models and new distribution models.

Everyone has a cell phone, and the phone has a positioning system. For example, by locating arrival vehicles, there is also a need to provide some road infrastructure to communicate with unmanned vehicles, so that vehicles can know each other's locations. Of course, we also encounter some obstacles, we have a cell phone as a node, your location has been leaked, which involves privacy issues.

In education, the new education model is based on artificial intelligence and can be adjusted according to the needs of students. Now students can also use their mobile phones for education.

We can use artificial intelligence to discover the characteristics of good students and weak students, so that the slow-minded students will no longer be left behind and the quick-minded students will no longer feel bored in class. This is a very significant shift in education, where personalized education can help children not only by cognitive skills but also by social emotional skills.

There are also new modes of work and communication. Many companies have operations in many countries, such as Microsoft. They must know how to work with other colleagues from different backgrounds and how to train them through artificial intelligence. For example, the victims of typhoon can get support around the world through the Internet, which is something you have not believed to be possible without AI.

More advanced AI: personalization

Now that we have a new pattern of change that we can personalize the building, it's very interesting. 35% of electricity is consumed by commercial buildings. Unfortunately, 10% of China's electricity is wasted because the data we obtained from these buildings is outdated. But now we have data collected so that the managers of these buildings can conduct management in an energy-saving way.

What makes us even more excited is that these results can be sent to the office staff, so that they know which color of lighting and which plan of energy composition are most useful. A very important personal design is to help people make changes in behavior, so that we can visualize the skills, so that they know which kind of work is the most efficient.

You can think about your work habits, for instance, you can walk to work, take the elevator to the office, or ride a bike to work, for which we will have a lot of suggestions. Many people say I want to have something personal, such as a personalized treatment plan for cancer patients, personalized marketing, and personalized education. Everything can be customized for a wide range of purposes. For example, every day an AI assistant will say that I can help you. This is a very simple thing. It will be annoying to repeat. Therefore, we will have more advanced customization.

I share with you two cases. The first is to use artificial intelligence to understand your feelings, to determine your health status, to ensure you get the best assistance. The second is to establish a relationship between the system and the user, so that AI can not only customize your product, but also make the appropriate adjustments.

Also, for call centers, this is our first impression of brand recognition. When the call center received a call, you must respond within 30 seconds. This is a robot system that my students and I invented in 2017. The system will automatically calculate it. It will study your smile, the movement of your eyes, and observe the language you are using to ridicule you. This is the robot that will evolve.

It has a feedback recommendation system to choose the communication skills that the machine should use and determine whether it should be commendable to you. For example, you really surprised me. How do people like you come to this forum? This is the process of human interaction with the robot. It will get some information, and seek advice from you.

That’s all. I hope my speech can stimulate more discussion. Thank you.

【本文内容未经演讲嘉宾本人确认,仅供参考!】

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