MIT移动研究室里奇•弗莱彻:未来的大脑可能会“自动驾驶”

摘要:里奇·弗莱彻表示:“人类的慢性病已经超过了其他疾病,科技技术帮助人类可以在最大程度上的指导和干预人类的健康水平,并对人类未来的健康做出假设“人类的大脑未来可能会自动驾驶”。

12月28日,“亚太区域互联网创新创业高峰论坛”在海口隆重举办。本次峰会是由海南省工业和信息化厅、海口市人民政府和澄迈县人民政府主办,龙华区人民政府、复兴城互联网创新创业园和品途集团承办,是2017海南“互联网+”创新创业节系列活动之一。

会上,美国麻省理工学院移动技术研究室创始人里奇·弗莱彻(Richard R. Fletcher)表示:人类的慢性病已经超过了其他疾病,科技技术帮助人类可以在最大程度上的指导和干预人类的健康水平,并对人类未来的健康做出假设“人类的大脑未来可能会自动驾驶”。

以下为主题演讲实录,由品途商业评论(ID:pintu360)精编整理,有删减:

各位上午好,非常高兴能够参会,给大家介绍我们的工作,以及AI在健康、互联网方面发挥的作用。

慢性病需要的是干预和指导 

在人类的历史中,大概在500年前健康方面主要是传染疾病,但在1990年后慢性病却超过传染病,因此现在疾病主要是慢性病,这一点很大的改变了我们对健康的看法,典型的有癌症、糖尿病、心血管病,还有例如精神疾病、抑郁症等等。

这些疾病在全世界的发布率持续上升,而这些疾病的病因是什么?除一些基因的问题外,有些环境问题,例如空气污染。但大部分的问题源于行为上的原因,例如饮食,运动,睡眠质量,社交等等。通过风险因素我们可以看到,环境已经有所控制,所以行为和基因是慢性病的主要诱因。

首先来看癌症的诱因,40%的癌症是可预防的,癌症的发生与饮食习惯、锻炼的习惯等相关。为了预防,医生会建议如何饮食,如何进行适当的运动,如何改善睡眠,改善人际关系等等,此外不要忽略精神因素,我们的感受也是健康的重要组成部分 。

精神健康也需要重视

情绪事实上与各种各样的慢性病相关,例如压力和体重相关,压力还和糖尿病的症状例如葡萄糖水平相关,压力甚至直接导致了疾病,例如这个实验,两只相同的老鼠,一只老鼠有压力,另外一只没有,受到压力的老鼠表现是体型更大更胖,压力会在疾病上产生决定性作用。

因此治疗需要放松的疗法,例如瑜珈、认知医学等,这些新的疗法明显的表现是调节血压、改善睡眠、减少疼痛等等。

另外精神健康例如焦虑、压力是导致疾病最重要的因素,在美国会吃镇痛片,吃维他命等,吃药已经成为超过车祸之死的原因之一,那如何来了解精神问题增进我们的健康呢?如果想要改进肌肉可以去健身房锻炼,而科技也在身体上和精神上增进了我们的健康。

科技可以非常明显地监督健康、通过行为来预测疾病发展,发现异常情况,此外可以通过技术干预改变不健康行为,以改善情绪。

在收集不同的生命体征、行为反馈后,人工智能可以为你做出预测,未来疾病治疗可能像导航一样,告知你如何走到目的地,也就是健康。

科技技术决定了人类未来的健康水平

技术监督健康,目前可以用传感器获取数据,在手机上查看健康情况,各种各样的公司做出了可穿戴设备和APP,但是老年人或者自闭症的孩子、精神病人、吸毒者,虽需要健康辅助设备却不会使用,因此有些公司正在研发切入型设备,注射到身体里面。如果穿戴设备不接触身体可以利用光、声音、微波来监测健康指标,有论文表明,微波可以用来分析人的健康,通过视频的信号分析你的心率你的呼吸情况心跳变化的情况,坏血病患者身体热的程度。甚至身体的气味也可以被用来去分析身体的情况。

技术引导行为,手机、可穿戴设备显示的数据可以直接引导我们改变行为或把信息传递给医生,可以建造楼宇,通过传感器的信号指导去做一些介入和干预,例如灯光的色彩。不同的灯光会让你感到放松,可以通过云服务平台进行操作和控制。

技术可以引导我们,已经是我们生活的一部分,如果技术使用不当,技术可能对我们产生危害,影响我们的人际关系,影响我们的健康。我们要用技术帮助孩子骑单车,用技术提升我们的健康,提升我们的意识,反思我们的行为,利用技术帮助提升应抗压力的能力。

未来的健康领域我们会有智能手机、可穿戴设备、智能家居、智能床、大脑的植入物等等,现在交通有无人驾驶,未来大脑可能也是实现“自动驾驶”,这是一个大胆的比喻。大脑将用预算法指导我们的行为,人工智能让我们改善我们的行为,技术变成一种导航的协助,移动技术、互联网、人工智能将让普通的人类做出更多不普通的事。

附美国麻省理工学院移动技术研究室创始人里奇·弗莱彻(Richard R. Fletcher)英文演讲:

About 500 years ago, the main health problem for human was contagious disease. However, after 1990, chronic diseases exceeded infectious diseases which is now mainly chronic. This has greatly changed our view on health, typically like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and mental illness, depression.

The incidence of these diseases in the world continues to rise, and what are the causes? In addition to some gene problems, there are environmental issues such as air pollution. But most of the problems stem from human behavior such as diet, exercise, quality of sleep, socializing, and so on. As the risk factors like environment has been controlled, behavior and genes are the main cause of chronic diseases. 

Look at the causes of cancer, 40% of the cancer is preventable, the occurrence of cancer relates to eating habits, exercise habits and so on. To prevent it, the doctor will advise on how to eat, how to exercise properly, how to improve sleep, improve interpersonal relationships and so on. In addition, we should not neglect mental factors. Our feelings are also an important part of our health.

Mental health calls for more attention

Emotions are actually associated with a variety of chronic conditions, such as stress and weight-related stress. Stress is also associated with the symptoms of diabetes such as glucose levels, which can even be the direct result of illness. For example, this experiment, two identical mice, one mouse pressure, the other did not, the performance of the pressured mice is larger and more fat, so the pressure will have a decisive role in the disease.

Therefore, the treatment needs relaxation therapy, such as yoga, cognitive medicine, etc. The obvious performance of these new treatments is to regulate blood pressure, improve sleep, reduce pain and so on.

In addition, mental health such as anxiety and stress are the most important factors leading to the disease. In the United States, people eat analgesic tablets and eat vitamins. Taking medicine has become one of the reasons for the death of car accident. How to understand mental problems and improve our health? If you want to improve muscle, you can go to the gym to exercise, and likewise technology also physically and mentally enhance our health.

Technology can clearly monitor health, anticipate disease progressiondetect anomalies through behavior, and change unhealthy behaviors through technical interventions, in order to improve mood.

After collecting different vital signs and behavioral feedback, artificial intelligence can make a prediction for you. In the future, disease treatment may tell you how to get to your destination like navigation, and the destination is health.

Science and technology determine the health of mankind

The current sensors can be used to obtain data on phones, so as to view the health situation of human beings. A variety of companies make wearable devices and APP, but for the elderly, children with autism, mental patients and drug users, health supplements are needed. Some companies are developing cutting-edge devices that can be injected into human bodies. If the wearable devices do not touch the body, light, sound and microwave can be used to monitor health situations. Papers show that microwave can be used to analyze heart rates through video signals and body heat etc. Even body odor can be used to analyze the condition of human health.

Data displayed on mobile phones and wearable devices directly guide us to change behaviors or pass on information to a physician. We can build buildings and use signals from sensors to do some interventions, such as lighting colors. Different lighting will make you feel relaxed, you can operate and control through the cloud service platform.

Technology can guide us and is already part of our lives. If technology is used improperly, it can hurt us, affect our relationships and do harm to our health. We need technology to help children ride bicycles, to improve our health, to enhance our awareness, reflect on our behavior and to increase our ability to resist stress.

We have smart phones, wearable devices, smart home, smart beds, brain implants and so on, and now the traffic is unmanned. In the future, brain may be “automatic”, which is a bold metaphor. The brain will guide our behavior with a budget approach. Artificial Intelligence will allow us to improve our behavior. Technology will turn into a navigational aid. Mobile technology, the Internet and artificial intelligence will make ordinary human beings achieve more than ever.

【本文内容未经演讲嘉宾本人确认,仅供参考!】


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